The bank of the Nile was approached by a group of six people: three Bedouins, each with his wife. At the shore is a boat with oars, which can withstand only two people at a time. A Bedouin can not allow his wife to be without him whilst in the company of another man. Can the whole group cross to the other side?
Gabby is standing on a river bank. She has two clay jars: one – for 5 litres, and about the second Gabby remembers only that it holds either 3 or 4 litres. Help Gabby determine the capacity of the second jar. $($Looking into the jar, you cannot figure out how much water is in it.$)$
On Easter Island, people ask each other questions, to which only “yes” or “no” can be answered. In this case, each of them belongs exactly to one of the tribes either A or B. People from tribe A ask only those questions to which the correct answer is “yes”, and from tribe B – those questions to which the correct answer is “no.” In one house lived a couple Ethan and Violet Russell. When Inspector Krugg approached the house, the owner met him on the doorstep with the words: “Tell me, do Violet and I belong to tribe B?”. The inspector thought and gave the right answer. What was the right answer?
a$)$ Two players play in the following game: on the table there are 7 two pound coins and 7 one pound coins. In a turn it is allowed to take coins worth no more than three pounds. The one who takes the last coin wins. Who will win with the correct strategy?
b$)$ The same question, if there are 12 one pound and 12 two pound coins.
There is a rectangular table. Two players start in turn to place on it one pound coin each, so that these coins do not overlap one another. The player who cannot make a move loses. Who will win with the correct strategy?
On the island of Contrast, both knights and liars live. Knights always tell the truth, liars always lie. Some residents said that the island has an even number of knights, and the rest said that the island has an odd number of liars. Can the number of inhabitants of the island be odd?
Three hedgehogs divided three pieces of cheese of mass of 5g, 8g and 11g. The fox began to help them. It can cut off and eat 1 gram of cheese from any two pieces at the same time. Can the fox leave the hedgehogs equal pieces of cheese?
In Mexico, environmentalists have succeeded in enacting a law whereby every car should not be driven at least one day a week $($the owner informs the police about their car registration number and the day of the week when this car will not be driven$)$. In a certain family, all adults want to travel daily $($each for their own business!$)$. How many cars $($at least$)$ should the family have, if the family has
a) 5 adults? b) 8 adults?
A family went to the bridge at night. The dad can cross over it in 1 minute, the mom can cross it in 2, the child takes 5 minutes, and grandmother in 10 minutes. They have one flashlight. The bridge can only withstands two people at a time. How can they all cross the bridge in 17 minutes? $($ If two people pass, then they go at the lower of their speeds. $)$ You can not move along a bridge without a flashlight. You can not shine it from a distance.
Three people A, B, C counted a bunch of balls of four colors $($ see table $)$.
Each of them correctly distinguished some two colors, and confused the numbers of the other two colours: one mixed up the red and orange, another – orange and yellow, and the third – yellow and green. The results of their calculations are given in the table.
How many balls of each colour actually were there?
Decipher the following rebus $($ see the figure $)$. Despite the fact that only two figures are known here, and all others are replaced by asterisks, the example can be restored.
There are 6 locked suitcases and 6 keys to them. At the same time, it is not known to which suitcase each key fits. What is the smallest number of attempts you need to make in order to open all the suitcases for sure? And how many attempts will it take there are not 6 but 10 keys and suitcases?
Multiplication of numbers. Restore the following example of the multiplication of natural numbers if it is known that the sum of the digits of both factors is the same.